ZK-Rollup Network

Merlin Chain has proposed a solution based on Taproot's aggregated zero-knowledge proof and Rollup data writing to the Bitcoin mainnet. This achieves highly scalable ZK-Rollup and addresses the Turing incompleteness of the Bitcoin network.

Detailed Explanation of Merlin Chain's Technical Architecture

This network aggregates and compresses transaction data into batches, which are then submitted to the Bitcoin mainnet's Taproot using zero-knowledge proofs. The important components include nodes, zkProver, and the database, which work together to complete data exchange and storage, ensuring the smooth transaction processing and verification process:

  • Nodes: Responsible for processing and transmitting transaction data, and interacting with zkProver and the database.

    • Send the contents of the Merkle Tree to the database and store it.

    • Send input transactions to zkProver for processing.

    • Interact with zkProver to ensure the validity and correctness of transactions.

  • zkProver: Utilizes SNARK technology to generate zero-knowledge proofs, proving the validity and correctness of transactions.

    • Contains 13 types of state machines, divided into main state machines and sub-state machines (such as BinarySM, StorageSM, MemorySM, ArithmeticSM, etc.).

    • Executes complex mathematical calculations, using PIL (Polynomial Identity Language) to describe state transitions and constraints during transaction execution, converting them into polynomial constraints or polynomial identities, and verifying them on smart contracts.

    • Interacts with nodes and the database, obtaining information to generate verifiable transaction proofs, including Merkle Root, related sibling keys, and hash values.

    • Sends the generated transaction proofs back to the nodes for further verification and recording, ensuring the legality and security of transactions.

  • Database: Used to store important data, such as the contents of the Merkle Tree and transaction information.

    • Receives and stores the contents of the Merkle Tree sent by the nodes.

    • Provides information needed by zkProver to generate transaction proofs.

This model brings several benefits to Merlin:

  • Security: Inherits Bitcoin's security, providing L2 batch processing scalability, ensuring that data is anchored in Bitcoin and cannot be tampered with.

  • EVM Compatibility: Supports existing smart contracts and tools, ensuring interoperability.

  • Low Cost: Uses ZK proofs and zkSNARK technology to reduce L1 space consumption, optimizing transaction costs.

  • High Performance: Ensures fast finality of transactions through frequent validity proofs, implementing scalability with recursive STARK, addressing high concurrency and large-scale user demand.

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